Slip and Slide

Slip and Slide: Ice, the Winter Olympics, and Animal Adaptations.

Ice ice baby! One of the most fun memories I have of winter is pretending to ice skate by sliding on the ice in my shoes. If you were careful and kept your balance you could zoom down the street like magic! Other times, I would slip and fall right into the snow!  Have you ever wondered about the slipperiness of ice? Other solid things don’t have this slick property, so how come ice does?  With the Winter Olympics coming up it is fun to explore the world of ice both through sport and through animal adaptations!

Turns out that ice is very special because of the molecular properties of water.  Remember that solid water (ice) is one of the few solids that is less dense than its liquid state.  Also, water’s freezing point is very close to what is known in chemistry as the triple point.  The triple point is a where a substance exists in multiple phases at once.  So, if you take your foot and apply pressure to the ice it may melt ever so slightly creating a liquid layer on top.  This means that ice has little friction, so sports on the ice and snow must compensate.  In some cases, such as downhill skiing, they reduce friction even further, but in others such as cross-country skiing, you add friction to create propulsion.  Even more interesting are sports such as curling that manipulates friction in many ways to send a rock down the ice to hit a target.  Many different animals have also adapted to slipping and sliding along the ice!

Sliding on Ice: Curling

One of the sports in the Winter Olympics I’m most intrigued by is curling.  It looks simple and yet the physics of this sport is both complex and fascinating.  Each team member, from the skip to the sweepers plays a role in guiding this big rock down the ice to the house where the target is.

Curling has been around since 16th century Scotland and gets its name from the slow gentle curve the stone makes as it slides down the ice.  It became an official Olympic sport in 2002 and consists of 2 teams of 4 throwing 8 stones each.  They go 8-10 rounds and compete for points.  Curling stones are made of granite, which is hydrophobic, and come from a quarry in Scotland.

Beyond the handle, the curling stone has two important features: the running band and the striking band.  The running band is a sharpened ring on the bottom of the stone, which reduces contact with the surface. It is the rotation and pressure from this running band that manipulates the friction under the stone and helps it glide down the ice. The striking band is the smooth outer edge of the stone and its purpose is to allow for transfer of energy from one stone to the next, so you can knock your opponent off target!

I honestly always thought the sweepers were adding friction, so the stone didn’t soar past the target, BUT it is actually the opposite.  Also, curling ice is different in that it is pebbled.  Tiny droplets of water are sprayed onto the surface where they freeze to create a textured surface.  They slice the tops off each tiny ice bump and ta da you’ve got perfect curling ice. This results in less friction because less of the rock is touching the ice.  The purpose of sweeping, as I discovered, is to further reduce the friction by creating tiny scratches in the pebbled ice.  This decreases the amount of ice sliding under the running band even more. Sweeping helps the rock go straighter and further.  It is one of the few sports where once thrown the team can adjust and manipulate the trajectory of their object.

Tobogganing Emperor Penguins:

In the animal kingdom sliding on ice immediately makes me think of penguins sliding around on their bellies. The emperor penguin is both the tallest and heaviest species of penguin and has several adaptations that help it survive the harsh weather of Antarctica.  They have a lot of blubber to stay warm especially during the long winter, but one of the drawbacks to this adaptation is that it makes them very unbalanced and gives them a lumbering waddle.  So, what do they do if they have to move quickly while on the ice? They toboggan!

Tobogganing is when the penguin slides on his stomach.  His slick waxy feathers offer little friction against the ice and the penguin can slide off and away if a sea leopard comes up on the ice.  Their target when trying to escape is almost always the ocean.  Once in the ocean emperor penguins can go nearly 8 mph and can stay underwater for around 20 minutes.  They can also compress air in their feathers and use it to propel themselves twice their speed, so they can shoot out of the water and up onto the ice.

Speeding over the snow: Cross Country skiing

So, what about snow?  Snow is made up of tiny ice crystals but is fluffier – you can slip on it, but mostly you just get stuck in it – unless you have the right equipment! Cross country skiing is the oldest form of skiing and emerged from a need to travel over snowy terrain.  It was developed into a sport at the end of the 19th century and was added to the Olympics in 1924 (men) and 1952 (women). Traditionally this Olympic sport is dominated by the Nordic countries.

In cross country skiing you rely on your own locomotion for propulsion versus using gravity to zip down a mountain like in downhill skiing. The motion of cross country skiing is very different from downhill.  The boot is attached only at the toe, so the heel goes up and down as the skier strategically uses friction to glide forward.  As you put pressure down on one ski you gain traction from the grip zone and can glide forward on your other ski.

The classic stride is alternating pressure on your skis like this on prepared parallel tracks.  There is also the skating stride, which is shorter, and faster.   The skier is propelled on a smooth, firm snow surface by pushing your skis alternately away from one another at an angle, in a manner similar to ice skating.  As you can imagine the skating stride looks a little crazy, but is super effective in a race.  Look for this when you watch the Olympics!

Both strides take advantage of the increased surface area of the skis to prevent the skier from sinking in the snow.  Well before humans strapped on skis, animals adapted to run on and over the snow.

Predator and Prey: Snowshoe Hare versus Canada Lynx

The snowshoe hare and Canada lynx both have adaptations that allow them to move quickly over snow.  As with most predator prey relationship their survivals are interwoven.  The Canada lynx’s population parallels that of the snowshoe hare since it is its primary source of food.  So how do they match up in the snow?

Snowshoe hares have larger hind feet and lots of fur between its toes compared to other hares.  This means its hind feet act like snow shoes allowing it to quickly move over the snow.  A snowshoe hare can run nearly 30 mph over the snow and can jump 10 ft in a single bound.  This is helpful as it escapes its main predator the Canada lynx.

Snowshoe hares are the main prey of this small cat, which also has special snow adaptations.  Their feet are oversized with extra fur, which gives the Lynx its own pair of snowshoes!  Since the hare is faster than the lynx, the lynx relies on ambush for success and can silently stalk prey in the snow thanks to its snowshoe feet.

It is amazing how both humans and animals have adjusted to getting around in the ice and snow.  From sliding rocks and penguin bellies to skis and “snowshoe” feet, the ice and snow is a fun arena in which to compete.  I don’t know about you, but I cannot wait to watch the Winter Olympics this year – especially curling!

What are those red circles on Olympic athletes?

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Have you been watching the 2016 Rio Olympic Games and seen a number of Olympians sporting big round red circles all over their backs and bodies? You may be asking what are those strange looking marks? Well we have the answer for you!

These red/purple circles are evidence of the person/athlete going through a traditional Chinese therapy technique called “cupping”. 

So how does cupping work? 

Standard cupping involves a glass cup and a flammable substance which heats the cup. As the fire goes out, the cup is placed upside down on the patient’s skin. As the air inside the cup cools, it creates a vacuum or suction. This causes the skin to rise and redden as blood vessels expand. The cup is generally left in place for five to 10 minutes. Cupping is not painful despite the leftover marks. The red/purplish circles left on the skin are caused by blood being drawn to the surface and small capillaries rupturing.

Supporters of cupping therapy believe the suction of the cups mobilizes blood flow to promote the healing of a broad range of medical ailments.

Why are some Olympians using it?

Athletes say they are using it to ease aches and pains, and to help with recovery from the physical toil of constant training and competing at the 2016 Rio Olympic Games. One of the most notable athletes to sport the signature cupping marks is Michael Phelps. Other athletes, including swimmer Natalie Coughlin and American gymnast Alexander Naddour have also embraced the practice. 

, via Wikimedia Commons”]

August E-News: Mother Nature’s Olympians Crowned!

The 2012 Summer Olympic Games have officially begun and five days in, the athletes are well on their way to captivating the world with their super-human abilities. Watching these athletes in action, vying for gold can be mesmerizing to those of us sitting at home. The Olympics are a time to celebrate the world’s fastest and strongest humans in the world – the best of the best. But we wondered, how would record-breaking runners, such as the fastest man in the world Usain Bolt, fare against the wilder side of the animal kingdom?

These Olympians of the natural world could easily make humans look somewhat unimpressive when compared to their strength, speed, agility and endurance used daily as a matter of survival. In honor of the Summer Games, we thought we would shake things up a bit and highlight some spectacular “Animal Olympians” with gold medal-worthy abilities. 

Track & Field

High-Jump Stars

The High-Jump champion of the animal world may just be the spittle bug. This insect is only as long as a pencil eraser but it can jump 115 times higher than its body length, while the record for humans is just a little over 8 feet. That’s about 1.25 times the height of the record-holder,Cuba’s Javier Sotomayor.  In comparison, the spittle bugs jump would be the equivalent of a person leaping over a 70-story skyscraper!!

Long Jump


Tiny crustaceans called copepods were recently named the world’s best animal jumpers. They leap with greater muscle power than kangaroos, frogs and all other impressive animal jumpers. copepods can accelerate to 500 body lengths per second when they perform an escape jump away from countless underwater predators. VIDEO: See a copepod perform its medaling jumps!


Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt is credited as the fastest human, with a top running speed of 27.79 mph. In the animal kingdom, the cheetah can bolt at speeds over 70 miles per hour or more for short bursts, making them the world’s fastest land animals. But even that doesn’t always ensure this big cat gets a meal. The gazelles and other small antelope that are the cheetah’s main prey are not as fast as the cat, but they have greater endurance and agility in a high-speed chase and often escape the spotted speedster.

Also on the podium would be the pronghorn antelope and the world’s fastest bird, the Ostrich. Both of these animals are strong medal contenders for any running events with the pronghorn pulling out at 55mph followed by the ostrich clocking in at an amazing 40mph.

In The Pool – Amazing Aquatics

400 Meter Freestyle


In the pool, both Ryan Lochte and Michael Phelps may have some competition when it comes to the incredible sailfish. This fish shoots through the water reaching a swimming speed of 67mph! Their high speed would allow them to zip through any Olympics swimming event with ease!  

VIDEO: Watch Sailfish in Action in this LIFE clip.

Fish, sharks and marine mammals are such talented swimmers that Olympic athletes study their movements and wear swim suits modeled after their body structures. Dall porpoises can swim up to 35 miles per hour, making them the fastest water-dwelling mammals, according to the Smithsonian’s National Zoo. Russell Mark, USA Swimming’s director of biomechanics, stated that the dolphin/porpoise-style kick can make or break most human swimming races. “This is when swimmers push off walls and swim underwater without moving their arms,” he explained.

Relay Swimming


The killer whale or orca can swim up to 30 mph, however, it usually cruises at much slower speeds, between 2 to 6mph. The best contender for relay swimming would be the gentoo penguin. This bird may not be able to fly in the air like other birds, but it makes up for its flaws by flying through the water. With wings that work as paddles, this penguin is shaped for swimming reaching speeds up to 15mph – three times faster than humans!  



The beaked whale, actually more closely related to dolphins than whales, can dive deeper in the ocean than any other animal. Heading down to depths of 6,230 feet, that’s over a mile deep, it can then hold its breath for 85 minutes before resurfacing for air. Their breathing and blood-circulation systems are made for this, since they have much more oxygen in their muscles than we do and they can send more oxygen through their blood to their brains and hearts. 

Weight Lifting

Even Olympic weightlifters would have to contend with some fierce competition from the wild side.  The heaviest individual weight lifted by a human in an Olympic competition was 580.9 pounds, a record set by Iran’s Hossein Rezazadeh. Weighing in at 340 pounds, Rezazadeh falls short of lifting an object with a mass twice his own weight. It’s hard to believe that his efforts would fall short of a medal when up against a beetle. That’s right, an insect, could, pound for pound, blow away all other human and animal contenders.  The Rhinoceros Beetle can lift up to 850 times their own weight!  Battling it out for the Silver & Bronze would be the African Elephant and the African Gorilla.

VIDEO: Watch a Rhino Beetle Put to the Test


The African Bush Baby is a tiny primate and lives in the treetops. It has incredible gymnastic abilities. As it prowls the tropical forests at night looking for fruits and insects to devour, bush babies can make leaps of 20 feet or more, which is many times their own body length. They are great jumpers and acrobats too as they move in complete silence and can see in almost absolute darkness with the help of their huge eyes.

Animal Olympians are much like human Olympians – there is something about them that makes them stand out from the rest. Some of them run, swim or fly faster than other animals. Others can jump higher, dive deeper, or lift more. A few are Olympians because they live the longest, grow the tallest, weigh the most, or are simply the strongest. What animal would you nominate for an Olympic medal?

If you want to learn more and are ready for some Olympic sized fun, check out the full list of Animal Olympians here.

Discover more FUN about Animal Olympians with a few fun facts & try your hand at some Olympic Sized trivia!