Nature’s Density

What is
Density? Density is how much ‘stuff’ is packed into a particular area.

For
example, if we have 13 balls in a box and we have the same box with 27
identical balls inside it. We say the box with 27 balls has higher density than
the box with 13 balls.

Density
is a fundamental property of matter. Density is defined as mass divided by unit
volume. It is measured in grams per cubic centimeter or kilograms per cubic
meter. The Greek letter rho, is the symbol for density.

Density,
ρ = Mass ÷ Volume

So,
two liquids can take up the same amount of space(volume) but can have
completely different masses. If liquid A has a higher mass, MORE of that liquid
is in that space and therefore is denser. If liquid B has a lower mass, LESS of
that liquid is in that same space and is therefore less dense than liquid A.

All
liquids in your tower have similar volumes but they have different densities.
What does that mean? That means that each liquid has a different amount of mass
in that volume. The liquids with the highest density are at the bottom, and the
ones with the lower density are on top of each other. So, which of the liquids
is most dense? And which is least dense?

Bang in a Bag

A chemical reaction is a process in which one or more chemicals
(or things) combine to make something new. The ‘things’ or chemicals that we
started with are called Reactants and the new ‘thing’ that is made are called
Products. It is called a chemical reaction since:

1. It is accompanied by a rearrangement of the
atoms in the reactants to form different chemical matter. The product formed is
a new entity and is chemically different from the starting reactants.
2. It is usually irreversible: this means that in
most cases, I cannot get back what I started with.
3. A chemical reaction is usually accompanied by
a color change, smell, heat or light or release of a gas.

An example
of chemical reactions is the burning of wood in the presence of oxygen to
produce ash, water vapor and carbon dioxide.

A Chemical reaction or change is different from a physical change.

A physical change usually involves only a change of state: from
solid to liquid, liquid to gas or gas to water. A physical change does not
involve a change in the chemical entity of the reactant. The products will have
different physical properties than the reactants (such as state of matter,
texture, shape), but the chemical structure remains exactly the same as the
reactants. Therefore, a physical change is usually reversible.

An example
of a physical change is the change of states of water. Liquid water freezes to
become ice, and when heated turns to water vapor or steam. But in all three
states, it is still chemically identical: H2O, which is made of two
atoms of Hydrogen and one atom of Oxygen. So, change of states of matter is not
a chemical, but a physical change.

In the Bang
in a Bag chemical reaction you just observed, acidic vinegar (chemically acetic
acid) reacts with basic baking soda (chemically sodium bicarbonate) to form an
entirely new substance called sodium acetate, carbon dioxide (the gas produced)
and water. Once the reaction is complete, you cannot get back the vinegar and
baking soda. The release of carbon dioxide caused the sound and the bubbling
you observed during the chemical reaction.

Bag Stab & Polymerization

A plastic bag is made of polymers, long chains of individual molecules called monomers. When a sharp pencil pierces the bag the polymer chains separate without breaking. The chains of molecules then squeeze tightly around the pencil creating a seal that prevents it from leaking.

Polymers
find use in our everyday life, from water bottles and Tupperware to tires for
automobiles. The word polymer
is derived from the Greek root poly-, meaning many, and mer, meaning part or
segment. Many of the same units (or mers) are connected together to form a long
chain or polymer.

Polymers
are of two types: Polymers such as starch, proteins and DNA occur in Nature,
and are called Natural polymers. Synthetic polymers are derived from petroleum
oil and made by scientists and engineers. Examples of synthetic polymers
include nylon and plastic.

Long
repeating chains can be linked together to form a cross-linked polymer, which
may become branched and become a Branched chain polymer. As the degree of cross
linking in the polymer increases, the polymer usually increases in rigidity and
toughness. This is why we see plastics that have different degrees of hardness
from a plastic bag to a hard-plastic baseball bat.

HTHT @ Home Science Experiment and learn about polymers:

MEDIEVAL ENGINEERS: THE SCIENCE BEHIND THE CATAPULT

A
catapult is a lever, a stick or beam, propped up by a fulcrum, the pivot point.
The catapult magnifies your force to throw an object. So, you do not need as big
of a force to propel a large object, but the larger the force, the farther it
goes. In ancient times, catapults were used to throw heavy rocks.

Levers
and fulcrums can be used to pick up heavy things like rocks and building
materials. Have you ever used a see-saw? That’s a lever and fulcrum! See if you
can point out which part of your catapult is the lever, and which is the
fulcrum? The craft stick with the spoon is the lever and the stack of other
craft sticks is the fulcrum. The spoon beam pivots around the stack to generate
the force to launch the load. When you press down on the spoon, it pulls up on
the rubber band on the opposite end—this is its potential energy. When the
spoon is released, it pulls back up on the rubber band and the pom pom goes flying!
The potential energy is converted into energy of motion- kinetic energy.
Gravity also does its part as it pulls the object back down to the ground.

Take
it Further:

Try
launching a bouncy ball with your catapult. Compare it with the pom pom. How far
or high did it travel? Did it go as high or far as the catapult?

The
catapult also demonstrates Newton’s 3 Laws of motion:

An object at rest stays at rest until a force is applied, and an object will stay in motion until something creates an imbalance in the motion. (First Law) The acceleration produced when a force is applied depends on the mass of the object. (F = Ma; Second Law) Every action causes an equal and opposite reaction. (Third Law)

The
pom pom will remain at rest until a force acts on it (the release of the spoon
and/or gravity) – First Law

The
bouncy ball will not travel as high or far as the pom pom as the bouncy ball
has more mass than the pom pom and will require a larger force to travel the
same distance and speed as the pom pom – Second Law (Force = Mass X
Acceleration)

When
the spoon is pushed down, the load (pom pom or bouncy ball) travels upward- in
the opposite direction equal to the force applied on it. (Third Law of
Action-Reaction)

A catapult is a simple machine that has been around for ages. Have your kids dig up a little history and research when the first catapults were invented and used! Hint; check out the 17th century!

Discover the many ways that Birds use their Beaks!

Birds are a class of vertebrates with more than 18000 different species. Of the various features that are common to all birds, perhaps the most characteristic is their beak. All birds have one beak. But it has evolved differently in each species to improve its functions in response to its environment. These functions include feeding themselves and their young, defending themselves, grooming their feathers, mating, regulating their body temperature or building nests.

But what exactly is a beak?

In biological terms, it is a type of mouth in which the jaws have no teeth and are covered by a horny layer of a protein called keratin (like the nails or horn of a rhinoceros).

What are the different types of beaks?

Generally, bird beaks are categorized according to their shape and function. There are several different kind of bird beaks:
1. Hooked beaks: Owls, eagles, hawks, and other birds of prey that use their beaks to rip open flesh. They are usually meat eaters.

2. Cone shaped beaks: Goldfinches, sparrows and canaries are all good examples. They have a short, robust beak that ends in a conical shape, allowing them to break open seeds.

3. Short, curved beaks: Parrots and macaws have short curved beaks for splitting open hard fruits and nuts.

4. Straight, thin beaks: Bee eaters and Robins specialize in catching and eating insects with their straight and thin beaks. Woodpeckers also have strong thin beaks to peck through wood to find bugs.

5. Long, thin, needle-like beaks: Nectar feeders such as Hummingbirds swoop their beaks into flowers to find their food.

6. Wide, flat beaks: Filter feeders such as Flamingoes, swans and ducks have a filtering system in their beaks to pick out the dirt from the ponds and riverbeds.

7. Spatulate beaks: Wading birds such as spoonbills have large long beaks that help them pick up mollusks and small animals from the bottoms of ponds and marshes.

8. Large, long, and strong beaks: Fish eating birds such as pelicans, albatrosses and seagulls have long, curved beaks to catch fish and then prevent them from escaping. The pouch on a pelican’s beak helps it take huge gulps of water to store the fish in it. Herons and Cranes have long, strong beaks to catch fish.

9. Crossbill beaks: The Red Crossbill’s crossed bill tips may look odd, but it is in fact a clever adaptation to getting seeds out of closed pine cones.

10. Multifunctional beaks: A Toco Toucan’s beak is not just for show, this multi-purpose appendage can be used to collect and skin fruit, frighten predators, attract mates, and defend territory. Recent research has also shown that it also helps to keep the bird cool in the heat of the tropical day.

Also check out this interesting resource, provided by Mystery Science, on nests and why birds lay eggs in the spring!
https://mysteryscience.com/mini-lessons/birds-spring?loc=mini-lesson-button#slide-id-8400

Have you booked you hands-on FUN science programs with HTHT?

Can you believe Summer is almost over and it is almost time to go back to school? We know all you teachers are busy getting your classrooms ready, working on lesson plans and getting field trips set up for the year. Did you know that High Touch High Tech, Science Made Fun comes to your school? Yes, that is correct, we come to you for in-school field trips!

During an in-school field trip, students are given the opportunity to use the tools as a working scientist would use such as magnifying glasses, thermometers, graduated cylinders, scales & balances & more. Students are able to use these tools when experimenting to classify, measure, compare & hypothesize their observations. Access to these tools takes students beyond gathering data & helps to extend their senses. Your only job is to sit back and relax and let our Scientists do all the work!

Our programs are aligned with the North Carolina Essential Standards for Science (N.C.E.S). We offer many different science programs to meet your needs, all our programs are broken up into grade levels, and we offer many specials throughout the year!

Give us a try, You’re Going To Love Our Programs! We Look Forward To Visiting Your Classroom Soon!

Proudly celebrating 25 years of providing hands-on experiments to children!

Call us at 800.444.4968

50th Anniversary of the Moon Landing!

Do you remember where you were on these historic dates, July 16, 1969 and July 20, 1969? I am sure that Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong know exactly where they were!

July 16, 1969 Apollo 11 launched from Cape Canaveral Florida with Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins on board, beginning their historic flight to the moon.

July 20, 1969, 4 days later, Neil Armstrong and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin became the first humans to ever land on the moon and Neil Armstrong was the first person to walk on the moon! While taking a step onto the moon, Neil Armstrong said the famous quote that was heard around the world, “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.” These 2 days in history, will never be forgotten.

What science learned about the moon will also never be forgotten. The astronauts also returned to Earth with the first samples from another planetary body. Lunar rocks, core samples, pebbles and sand from the lunar surface were brought back to Earth. Scientists studied these items to learn more about the Moon, the Earth and the inner solar system.

Scientists have always been curious about space and what was out there. Children are curious as well and seem to be interested in learning everything they can about space and planets.  What if, alongside our team of professionals, students would be guided through the learning process, becoming real scientists performing real experiments!

High Touch High Tech, Science Made Fun has been around for 25 years and has been committed to moving STEM education forward within our community. HTHT  is a proud supporter of the Science, Technology, Engineering & Math initiative that is taking our Nation by storm. We encourage educators to ‘think outside of the box’ & challenge their students to find the science that surrounds us each day. This has made us an invaluable resource & trustworthy tool for teachers across the country.

Some of the Space Programs that we offer are:

Flight Command

Mission Control

Zoom to the Moon

Staggering through the Stars

These are just a few of the many space programs that we have. Whether your looking for preschool, elementary programs, afterschool programs or even Birthday Science Programs, we can accommodate your science needs!

Check out our website for more information or you can reach us at 800.444.4968 or by email us at info@ScienceMadeFun.net

High Touch High Tech, Science Made FUN

Hands-on FUN experiments for ages 3-12!

We come to you!

LIMELIGHT SCHOOL OF THE WEEK!

The Limelight School of the Week is…. Vandora Springs Elementary School in Garner, NC.

TEACHER:  Ms. Allaman

PROGRAM:  Cycle Babble

SCIENTIST:  Meteor Martin

Good Day to all the wonderful and extremely talented Scientists out there.  With Summer just around the corner, I assume those of you in traditional schools, are counting down the days until vacation and all the fun you will have traveling, going to the pool, summer cookouts, and hopefully seeing me in Summer Camps around the area!  For those of you in year-round schools, I’m sorry, but you will still be able to have loads of fun, and just think, at least you will be cool sitting in the classroom with all of your friends.

This week I want to give a huge shout out to Mrs. Allamon and the rest of the 2nd Grade teachers and students at Vandora Springs Elementary.  I had the opportunity to work with these bright and enthusiastic students not once, but twice, in one week.  We had such a great time leaning about the Life Cycles of organisms as well as different aspects of Weather.

I quite often mention to children during classes that little did they know, that they were going to be participating in not only a science class but also an art class at the same time. This lesson plan on life cycles is no joke as we build all four stages of metamorphosis of an insect from egg to adult.  I enjoy how most students will line their desks in correct order as we complete each stage.

One of my favorite subjects is Meteorology and I love being able to transfer my enthusiasm about weather to the children.  We covered information about our atmosphere, random collisions of particles as well as talking about low- and high-pressure systems.  The most exciting part of the lesson was when the kids are able to see how it is possible to blow up an eight-foot wind bag with only one breath.  I wish you could hear all the oohs and aahs from the children as the experiment works.  The bewilderment on their faces is truly something to witness.

I would like to thank Mrs. Allamon and the rest of the very helpful 2nd Grade staff for having High Touch High Tech be part of the curriculum at Vandora Springs Elementary.  I can’t wait to see you all again next year.  I hope your summer is safe, restful and full of fun adventures.

Until net year, this is “Meteor” Martin blasting off!!!

LIMELIGHT SCHOOL OF THE WEEK!

TEACHER:  Ms. Mason

PROGRAM:  It Doesn’t Phase Me

SCIENTIST:  Meteor Martin

Limelight School of the Week:  Cape Fear Christian Academy

Hello Scientists, I hope everyone is having a wonderful and exciting Spring.  Playing sports, riding bikes, and enjoying this weather in anticipation of being able to go to the pool and cooking on the grill. Our season has been jammed pack full of classes and meeting new students and teachers.  One of those new groups was the Fourth Graders at Cape Fear Christian Academy in Erwin, NC.

I believe I have stated before, one of my favorite things is to go into a classroom for the first time and see how the children begin the class so quiet and shy because they have no idea what to expect or how exciting things are about to get and within 10 minutes everyone is raising their hands, asking questions, telling me stories, so much so that I often have to tell the kids that I wish I could keep calling on them but if we don’t continue the lesson, we will never complete all the great activities.

We had so much fun with our lesson “It Doesn’t Phase Me,” learning about the moon and where it came from, learning and making craters as well as covering the different phases of the moon.

After class, while I was cleaning up, the children began asking me questions.  Some were science related and then others were off the wall such as do I know the WOAH.  I said, “the what.”  Then they proceeded to show me some new dance called the WOAH.  After I did it, the entire class began clapping and cheering.  IT WAS AWESOME!!!

Well, I would like to thank Mrs. Mason and the Fourth Graders at Cape Fear Christian Academy for having High Touch High Tech be part of your lesson and I can’t wait to see you again next year.

This is “Meteor” Martin blasting off.